sábado, 17 de febrero de 2018

Direct and Indirect Speech-El estilo directo e indirecto


Direct speech or discourse is used to report exactly of what someone said in another context. It is usually marked by quotes: John shouted: Open the door!
Indirect speech or discurse consists of reporting such statements indirectly, without using quotes, in English it is necessary the backshift of tenses, pronouns, adverbs, etc.
Backshift of tenses from .......................to
Simple Present to Simple Past
Simple Past,Present and Past Perfect to Past Perfect
will (Future Simple) to would (Conditional)
Present Continuous to Past Continuous
Present Perfect Continuous to Past Perfect Continuous
Shifting of expressions of time
this (evening) that (evening)
today/this day = that day
these (days) = those (days)
now = then
(a week) ago = (a week) before
last weekend = the weekend before / the previous weekend
here = there
next (week) = the following (week)
tomorrow = the next/following day

For example: Paul: "I didn’t visited you yesterday” → Paul said (that) he hadn’t visited me the day before/ the previous day.
Jane: "I will help you now, Eve” → Jane told Eve (that) she would help her then.
Statements: Differences between SAY and TELL
o Peter: “Sarah hates Anne” → Peter said (that) Sarah hated Anne/He said to me...
o Peter: "Phillip loves Kate” → Peter told me(that)Phillip loved Kate.

Commands,orders and request: Affirmative/ Negative forms ("that" is not used here)
o Teacher: “Open the book, children”→ The teacher ordered the children to open the window.
o Elisabeth “Please, go on” → Elisabeth asked me to go on.
o Molly: “Don’t give me the garbage!” → Molly ordered not to give her the garbage.
o Norah: “Don’t look at me!”→ Norah said not to look at her.
Also, the grammar rules forbid(prohiben) the use of that in questions, such as WH-questions:
o Pat: “Why are you smiling?”→ Pat asked (me) why I was smiling.
o Nancy: “Where does George live?” → Nancy wanted to know where George lived.

o Charles: “Do you like soccer?”→ Charles wanted to know IF/WHETHER I liked soccer.
o Pamela: “Is he a good father?" → Pamela wondered IF/WHETHER he was a
good father.

Free indirect speech refers to an author, usually in a third-person perspective, writing what characters think, feel, plan, reflect, dream, etc. It was used frequently in the twentieth century novels especially by the Irish writer James Joyce (Ulysses, Dubliners...) and Virginia Woolf (Mrs Dalloway,etc):
Ah yes, she did of course; what a nuisance; and felt very sisterly and oddly
conscious at the same time of her hat. Not the right hat for the early morning, was that it? For Hugh always made her feel, as he bustled on,raising his hat rather extravagantly and assuring her that she might be a girl of eighteen...

You can practise the senteces from direct to indirect style or reported speech in the following webpages:

La voz pasiva-Passive Voice

Passive Voice. La Voz Pasiva
La voz pasiva se usa cuando se quiere resaltar la persona, animal o cosa en la que recae la acción del verbo principal en vez de resaltar el sujeto o agente de la acción verbal. A veces no se sabe, es obvio, no es relevante o no se quiere decir el sujeto de la acción del verbo. La voz pasiva se usa mucho en textos periodísticos, científicos y más tipos y en el registro formal con más frecuencia.
The passive voice is used when we want to emphasize the person, animal or thing that receives the action of the main verb instead of focusing the attention on the subject or agent of the action of the verb. It is very used in journalist and scientific texts as well as other types and formal rather than colloquial language.
We always change the Subject to the end of the sentence preceded “by”+ Noun or personal pronoun object and the Direct or Indirect Object becomes the Subject Recipient of the action of the verb. Moreover we change the verb into passive using the verb To Be and the main verb in the Past Participle form, but the tense of the active sentence is never changed.
Siempre cambiamos el sujeto al final de la frase precedido por “by + Nombre o pronombre personal objeto” y el objeto directo o indirecto llega a ser Sujeto Paciente de la acción del verbo. Además cambiamos el verbo activo a pasivo usando el verbo Ser o Estar en inglés y el Participio de Pasado del verbo principal, pero el tiempo verbal de la oración activa no cambia en la voz pasivo, esto es si es presente, pasado o futuro en la voz pasiva seguirá siéndolo.
Example: The child gives the gifts(Direct Object) to her/the lady.(Indirect Object)
Subject Recipient Direct Object: The gifts are given (Passive Verb) to the lady (IO) by the boy.
Subject Recipient Indirect Object: The lady is given (Passive Verb) the gifts (DO) by the boy.

Present Simple Active
Present Simple Passive
 Write / writes
Be written
Past Simple Active
Past Simple Passive
Was/were written
Present Continuous Active
 Present Continuous Passive
Is/ are writing
Is / are being written
Past Continuous Active
Past Continuous Passive
Was /were writing
Was/ were being written
Future Immediate Active
Future Immediate Passive
Is going to write
Is going to be made
Future Simple Active
Future Simple Passive
Will write
Will be written
Present Perfect Active
Present Perfect Passive
Has written
Has been written
Future Perfect Active
Future Perfect Passive
Will have written
Will have been written 
Future Perfect Continuous Active
Future Perfect Continuous Passive
Will have been writing
Will have been being written
Modals in Present tenses Active
Modals in Present tenses Passive
Can/may//will/ shall write
Could/ might/ would /should be written

Sometimes the Verb “get” can replace the verb BE in the passive verb form:
Example: That building in Madison Square got overhauled (mejorado).
Besides the verb “need” can also be used with a passive sense to signify when something has to be done without saying who should do it.
Example: The car needs to be mended (reparado).
Reporting verbs such as say, consider, believe, think, assume, suppose, report are often said in news broadcasts or newspaper articles to report widely held views, which may or may not have been proven. There are two forms:
It is thought that the child knew his father-------------The child is thought to have known his father
It is said that the villagers were afraid of machines--The villagers are said to be afraid of machines


martes, 13 de febrero de 2018

British TV Historical series

Nowadays we have got many resources to learn a little bit of English everyday and if we do so while we enjoy our favourite or new TV series so much the better :)
It is a good chance to improve your English and enjoy many famous and good TV series if you use the Original Version, you can start with Netflix, HBO, Movistar, Imagenio or just YouTube downloaded videos
-Britannia (2017-): a British historical period drama coproduced by Sky and Amazon Prime Video, it is aired on Sky Atlantic in the UK and Amazon in the US. Set in AD 43 the series follow the conquest of Britain in which Celtin rivals Kerra and Antedia must work together to fight off the Roman invasion led by the general and Roman politician Aulus Platius.

-The Vikings (2013- ): A good account of the Vikings deeds, plunders and daily life brought to life in the history of the legendary king of Danes and Norsemen, Rathnar Lothbrok and his wife Ladgerda.
-The Last kingdom (2015- ): Based on the book by Bernard Cornwell´s “The Saxon Stories” and produced by Netflix and BBC America. It is set in 872 in Northumbria, the protagonist Uhtred a descendant of the Saxon nobility is caged and carried to Scandinavia by Danes after the murder of king Aethelred and the fall of the legendary kingdoms the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy and the struggle of the surviving kingdom of Wessex.
-The Vikings: Athelstan´s Journal (2015-): This a Canadian produced serie based on the life of the young Anglo-Saxon Athelstan, once a monk in Lindisfarne but brought to live in Viking society as a slave when he was kidnapped by Ragnar Lothbrok and his adventures when he rejoins the Anglo-Saxons under king Egcbert.

-Robin Hood (2006-2009): the last of the TV series about this legendary folk myth produced by Tiger Aspect Productions for BBC One and BBC American cable Tv, the hero Robin returns to England after five years fighting in the Crusades and leads a band of outlaws to halt the cruelties and injustices of the wicked Sheriff of Nottingham.
-The White Queen (2013-14): a BBC1 tv drama in ten parts based on Phillippa Gregory´s historical novels series “The Cousins Wars: The White Queen, The Red Queen and The Kingmaker´s daughter”, presenting three women such as Elizabeth Woodville later wife of Edward IV, Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry Tudor and Anne Neville, wife of Richard III and the supporter of York, as  involved in the long conflict of The War of the Roses from 1464.

-The White Princess (2016-17): it is a British-American historical fiction television series of Starz as a sequel of the White Queen and it focuses in the eldest daughter of Elizabeth Woodville and her late husband King Edward IV, Elizabeth of York would end the longest civil war in British history, the War of the Roses after her marriage to king Henry VII Tudor.
-The Hollow Crowns (2012- ): a British tv series adaptations of the historical plays by William Shakespeare starred by famous actors  such as Jeremy Irons, Benedict Cumberbatch and Judi Dench. In the first cycle it were adapted Richard III, Henry IV, Henry V, and the second cycle Henry VI and Richard III.
-The Tudors (2007-10): a TV serie by BBC2 and American Premium cable TV channel Showtime as an historical fiction TV serie set in 1500s England, based specifically on the reign of king Henry VIII of England. Starred mainly by Jonathan Rhys-Meyers, Henry Cavill and Natalie Dormer.
-Will (2017- ) an American serie broadcast in TNT dealing with the lost years of the young playwright William Shakespeare after his arrival to London in 1589 mixed with rock songs.
-Wolf Hall (2015): this TV serial was broadcast on BBC2 and it is an adaptation of two of Hilary Mantel´s novels “Wolf Hall” and “Bring Up the Bodies” a fictionalized biographies of Thomas Cromwell and Saint Thomas More in the court of Henry VIII till the death of the famous saint.

-Poldark (2015- ): a British-American drama television drama based on the first two Poldark novels by Winston Graham and an earlier television series broadcast by BBC One between 1975 and 1977. It deals with the story of Ross Poldark who returns from the American War of Independence to his Cornish mineral mines, he finds his state ruined, his father dead and his girlfriend Elizabeth engaged to his cousin but he still helps a young woman from a beating and takes her as his kitchen maid as well as the people of his village to gain control of the mines against the greedy and arrogant George Warleggan.
-Banished (2015-): a BBC 2 drama television serial inspired by the lives of British in Australia during the eighteenth century when it was a penal colony. Conflicts and conviviality are mingled in New South Wales in the year 1788 alongside the British convicts and their Royal Navy Marine guards.

-Jamaica Inn (2014-): produced by BBC One and now broadcast in HBO Spain. Based on Daphne du Maurier novel´s. Set in Cornwall in 1821 a young woman, Mary Yellan moves in with her aunt and uncle to their Inn and discovers the dark trade and personality of her uncle.
-Doctor Thorne (2016- ): a three-part television drama by ITV channel adaptation of the novel by Anthony Trollope. Mary Thorne a penniless orphan grows up under the guardianship of her uncle doctor Thorne, she befriends the Gresham family though financial problems threaten their friendship.
-The Mill (2013- ): a Channel 4 British TV series about the struggle of workers during the Industrial Revolution, it is very well documented serie about the hard labour of cotton mill workers and the abuse they endure, very tragic stories contrast with the children´s tenderness.

-Dickensians (2015- ):  A serie by BBC One based on the characters and Victorian setting of Charles Dickens novels, it brings together some of the most iconic characters and their lives.
-Great Expectations (2012- ): the story of orphan Pip who becomes a gentleman when his life is transformed by a mysterious benefactor his late love quest for Estella.
-Desperate Romantics (2009- ): a BBC six-part drama based on the lives of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt and the journalist and narrator offers them a muse, the young shopkeeper Elizabeth Siddal.

-North and South (2004- ): A drama series broadcast by BBC One and Netflix based on Elizabeth Gaskell´s novel about the story of Margaret Hale the daughter of an Anglican clergyman when they move to an industrial mill town and she adapts to her hard surroundings.
-Jericho (2016-2017): an ITV serie based on the inhabitants of a city in Yorkshire Dalesun whose lives will be changed after the building of the viaduct of Ribblehead.
-Death comes to Pemberley (2013- ): A tv serie by BBC One adapted from P.D. James sequel to Jane Austen´s “Pride and Prejudice” now Elizabeth and Darcy are six years married and preparing for their annual party when festivities have to be stopped due to a murder.
-The Village (2013- ): it is a BBC Tv series set in a Derbyshire village from 1914 to 1920s, the main character is Bert Middleton as a boy and his life as a working-class adult.
-Upstairs Downstairs (2010- ): an award winning British tv series by BBC One based on the lives of servants and family of the diplomat Sir Hallam Holland and his wife Lady Agnes in their sumptuous home at 165 Eaton Place, London.
-Ripper Street (2012- ): it’s a BBC tv serie set in 1889, six months since the last Jack the Ripper killing, in the streets of Whitechapel detective inspector Edmund Reid tries to establish justice, order and law to East London.
-Victoria (2016- ): another biography of Queen Victoria detailing the early years at the throne and her engagement and marriage to Prince Albert.

-Indian Summers (2015-16): a Channel 4 serie set in 1932 in Simla a town in the foothills of the Himalaya, a little England where power brokers (poderosos, corredores de bolsa) spend their summers in the final years of British colonial rule in India and the birth of a new modern nation.
-The Crimson Field (2014- ): A BBC One serie previously named as “The Ark” set in a war hospital in northern France during the Great War (1914-1918) as Kitty Treveyan as protagonist and other nurses and doctors who volunteered into busy and grim war hospitals.
-Downton Abbey (2010-2015): an awarded famous British serie (15 Emmy prizes, 3 Golden Globes and Bafta prizes) dealing with the lives of the aristocratic Crawley family and servants.
-The Passing Bells (2014- ): It is an historic epic historical drama by the BBC One, based on the lives two young ordinary soldiers during five years centered mainly in the First World War.
-Rebellion (2016-): It´s produced by the state Irish tv (RTE) dealing with the events of the Easter Rising in 1916 and three women take part in different sides and their families.
-Peaky Blinders ( 2013- ): a British action crime drama by BBC Two set in the 1920s Birmingham a gang family who sew razor blades in the peaks of their caps starring Cillian Murphy.

-Mr Selfridge (2013- ): a British period drama set from 1908 to 1928 about the Harry Gordon Selfridge, owner of the glamorous stores Selfridges´ in London.
-The Outcast (2015- ): based in a novel by Sadie Jones, it deals with the life of Lewis Aldridge and his struggle to adapt into the life of a post-war English village.
-My mother and other strangers (2016- ): Produced by BBC Northern Ireland and it follows the life of the Coyne family and their neighbours after the US Army Air Force sets up there a camp.
-Call the Midwife (2012- ): Produced by BBC One and it deals with the lives of nurses and midwives living in East London in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
-Our Zoo (2014- ): It´s a British drama tv serie about the Mottershead family in the 1930s who founded Chester Zoo in spite of huge opposition and personal sacrifice.
-The Crown (2016- ): the beginning of Queen Elizabeth´s reign with the social and political trends of the twentieth century.

-This is England ´86-´88-´90 (2006- ) it follows the life of twelve year old Shaun and the lives of young skinheads Woody, Michelle, Combo, Lol, Milky, Meggy, Pukey, etc. and different social and musical trends in England during these years.

martes, 6 de febrero de 2018

Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentences
Also known as (aka.) conditional clauses or If clauses are used in English meaning that the action in the main clause (without if ) can only occur if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are many types of conditional sentences and we will review them here.
Las oraciones condicionales son usadas en inglés para expresar que el significado de la oración principal (sin el si/if) puede sólo ocurrir si una cierta condición (en la oración con if/si) se realiza. Hay muchos tipos de condicionales y las revisaremos aquí.
0-Zero Conditionals: Present tense clause + Present tense clause
This is used to state a condition that will always happen because it is always true.
If she eats a lot of fried food, she always feels sick afterwards.
1st-First Conditionals:  Present tense clause + Future tense clause
This is used to state something that is probable to occur.
If you drive too fast, you will have an accident.
If I take up karate lessons, we shall defend myself against attackers.
2nd-Second Conditionals: Past tense clause, would + Verb in the Infinitive form
This is used to state a less probable situation or hypothetical circumstance.
If we found the treasure, we would donate it to the museum.
I would join the club, if I had the time.
3rd Conditionals: Past Perfect tense, would have + Past Simple verb clause
This conditional sentences are used to express a hypothetical situation in the past.
If we had not walked so slowly, we would have arrived on time to the film premiere.
If we had written an appreciation letter to the academy, we would have received free entry tickets.
Mixed Conditionals: Past Perfect + would tense
                                    Past Simple + would have tense
                                   Past + Future tense clause
These are situations that are possible or hypothetical in the past, present or future (when the time reference in the conditional clause is different from that in the main clause).
If he had looked after his daughter better, he would not feel so sad now.
If you were an animal, you would not have put up with that cage for a long time.
If you studied a lot, you will pass your exam.

 Conditionals with Modal auxiliary verbs: Present, past or past perfect + should, could, can, 
                                                                                                                    may, might (have)   
     These are possible situations and we use a modal to advice or suggest a probability.
If you have a toothache, you should visit the dentist.
If she feels ill, she may see the doctor.
If they come late, they might be stuck in a traffic jam.
If you do not drive, you can/could take driving lessons.

We can also use other conjuncts to express a condition in a conditional phrase with unless (but not if or only if), on condition that, provided, providing, as long as, so long as, even if, but for, supposing, suppose, otherwise, or else, in case, lest.
I will drive as long as/on condition that/ provided that you do the ironing tonight.
Even if you pass the exam, you should work hard to get their approval.
Supposing you win the elections, would you do the necessary reforms?
She would be better study it, otherwise she will not succeed in her dream.

In the following websites you can practise all types of Conditional sentences and check the correction  afterwards:

viernes, 12 de enero de 2018

Formulario de valoración alumnos nivel 1 abiertas.

Hello class,
os propongo un formulario de valoración de lo que llevamos de curso hasta ahora. Para nosotros es importante saber vuestra opinión, nos ayuda a mejorar.
Por favor, responde solo una vez de manera sincera.
Gracias, un saludo.

Valoración Nivel 1 enseñanza abierta.

martes, 9 de enero de 2018

Keep calm and welcome back

Hello New Year 2018! 
We start a freezing January in Fuenlabrada, a year 2018 full of promises, fresh plans and exciting prospects. we are happy with the recent gifts, books and organizers and diaries we have received or purchased all blank to be written through the incoming months.
 We wish your dreams and desires are fulfilled and probably one of them is to learn a lot of English and to pass the English subject too ;) the language that is ubiquitous in every country, especially in America the land of hope and opportunities and the language of international communications, business, trade, science and also to socialize with most of the world´s population. 
We encourage you to continue in your study and curiosity because learning is a life-long task and as the Irish writer Samuel Becket said "Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter. Try again. Fail again. Fail better. Learn to success" 

The best way to predict the future is to create it. Abraham Lincoln.

domingo, 10 de diciembre de 2017

Christmas Greetings. Profesora Cristina Rubio.

Hello everyone!
Te propongo una actividad colaborativa. Se trata de crear un tablero con las felicitaciones navideñas en inglés de todos los alumnos. En el siguiente enlace encontrarás un tablero PADLET. Elige tu columna y escribe una felicitación. Puedes incluir imágenes, fotos, vídeos, lo que quieras (sin olvidar las normas básicas de respeto y convivencia), pero cúrratelo un poquito para que podamos utilizarlo en nuestras redes sociales y puedas presumir ante tus amistades ;-)
Aquí te dejo algunos ejemplos que te pueden servir de inspiración.Resultado de imagen de christmas greetingsResultado de imagen de christmas greetings

Resultado de imagen de christmas greetingsResultado de imagen de christmas greetings
Resultado de imagen de christmas greetingsResultado de imagen de christmas greetings

Hecho con Padlet

lunes, 16 de octubre de 2017

Verbos Frasales

Hay dos tipos de Phrasal Verb dependiendo si no llevan Objeto Directo:
Intransitivo: ejemplo; She run away in anger= Ella huyó furiosa) y 
-si llevan Objeto Directo Transitivo: se combinan de forma diferente en las oraciones:

1-Objeto Directo entre el verbo y la partícula Cross the letters out. (Tacha las letras)
Don´t leave the pets out.(No dejes las mascotas fuera). 
Can you work the expenditures out? (¿Puedes controlar los gastos?).

2-Objeto Directo al final o entre el verbo y la partícula en caso de pronombres personales Sujeto u Objeto:
This extract deals with a controversial topic.( Éste fragmento trata de un tema controvertido)
 The caterpillar turns into a beautiful butterfly. (La oruga se convierte en una bonita mariposa) 
We get on / off the bus. (Nos montamos/bajamos del autobús).
 They just ran away. (Ellos sólo corrieron).

3-Objeto Directo o partícula inseparable
Promise me you will look after your little sister. (Prométeme que cuidarás de tu hermanita).

4-Dos Objetos Directos: Combinamos dos OD entre el verbo y la partícula:
We just put the accident down to the bad weather. (Achacamos el accidente al mal tiempo).

Para ver más ejemplos echa un vistazo a las siguientes páginas web:


Separable Phrasal Verbs:  bring about/on (to make sth to happen)= hacer que ocurra algo
bring up (raise a child or start a topic)= criar un niño/a o empezar un tema
call back= devolver la llamada
call in (official)= hacer un llamamiento
cross out (delete)= tachar, eliminar
call off (cancel)= cancelar 
take over(take control )= tomar el control
clean up= limpiar
do over (repeat)= repetir
drop off (leave sth somewhere)= dejar algo en algún sitio
figure out (understand)= comprender
fill in (complete)= rellenar
give up (stop trying)= abandonar, dejar de intentar
hand in (give a work to a teacher)= entregar
hang up (replace the telephone in the receiver)= colgar el teléfono
keep out (not enter)= no entrar
make up (invent)= inventar
look over(review)= revisar 
throw out (discard)= rechazar, descartar
try on= intentar
take off= despegar
shut off (stop sth)= parar
Inseparable Phrasal Verbs: catch up (become equal)= alcanzar, igualar, actualizar
call on (visit or ask sne. to do sth.)= pedir a alguien que haga algo
check out (leave a hotel)= salir del hotel, sacar el equipaje en aduana o aeropuertos
come across (find)= averiguar
drop by (visit unexpectedly)= visitar inesperadamente
drop out (stop attending a class)= dejar de asistir a una clase
get along with (have a good relationship with sne.)= llevarse bien con alguien
get in (enter)= entrar
get out of (leave a car)= salir del vehículo 
show up (appear)= aparecer, mostrarse
run into (meet)= encontrarse
take up (begin)= empezar, comenzar

Phrasal Verbs

MULTI-WORD VERBS (a.k.a. Compound or Phrasal Verbs) can be found in 3 manners:

-Verb + Preposition (+ Noun or pronoun) known as Prepositional Phrasal Verbs.
-Verb + Adverb (particle just dependent on the verb), strict Phrasal Verbs.
-Verb + particle + Preposition. Examples such as put up with, add up to, look forward to, count up to, ask up to, come up to.

Son usados en inglés coloquial frecuentemente y su origen está en los antiguos verbos separables germánicos. Hay varios tipos de Verbos Frasales dependiendo si usan o no el Objeto Directo (transitivos e intransitivos) y su posición en la oración. 

They are frequently used in English especially in informal English and they come from the origins of English in the ancient Germanic separable verbs.  There are many sort of them depending on the use or lack of Direct Object and its position in the sentence.
-Intransitive Phrasal Verbs: they do not have DO because they are autonomous and independent of any necessary complement to the Verb.
Examples: My car broke down yesterday. Mi coche se averió ayer.
He did not turn up. Él no aparecio
-Transitive Phrasal Verbs: they need a Direct Object and they combine it differently in the sentences:
-Direct Object between the verb and the particle. Ex. Put your shoes on. Ponte los zapatos
Cut the fabric out. Corta la tela.

-Direct Object at the end or in between the Verb and particle in case of Personal Pronouns (Subject and Direct Personal Pronouns)
Ex. Cheer up your friend= Cheer her up. (Aníma a tu amigo/a)    Turn round the chair= Turn it around
(Gira la silla)
Look up the word in the dictionary= Look it up (Búscalo/a)   Eat the omelette up= Eat it up (Cómete la tortilla/ Cómetela)
-Always inseparable Direct Object. Ex. I have to deal with the issue. Tengo que tratar el caso.     
-Two Direct Objects: We combine two DO in between verb and particle.
Ex. He always puts down his failure  ( Direct Object ) to his parents (Indirect Object).
Siempre achaca su fracaso a sus padres.


martes, 10 de octubre de 2017

Actividades que vemos en clase. NIVEL 1. ENSEÑANZA ABIERTA.

Hello class os cuelgo aquí las fichas que vamos a ir viendo a lo largo del curso. Aunque las daré en clase, os las dejo aquí también.

English File Elementary. 3rd Edition.

Portal del alumno donde encontrarás mucho material extra AQUÍ

Unidad 1:

  • Grammar activities AQUÍ (imprime solo las páginas 1, 2 y 3)
  • Vocabulary activities AQUÍ
  • Song AQUÍ

miércoles, 4 de octubre de 2017

Material complementario para SECUNDARIA

Os dejamos enlace al material complementario que utilizaremos en los niveles 1 y 2 de educación Secundaria, .
Antes de imprimirlo, preguntad a vuestros profesores si necesitáis este material.
La portada es del año pasado, así que no la imprimas si no quieres.
Dejaremos una copia en la conserjería por si no tienes impresora.

viernes, 29 de septiembre de 2017

Main Auxiliary Verbs

The verbs To BE (ser o estar), To HAVE (haber o tener) y TO DO (hacer) are essential in English to form also the tenses of other verbs in the following sentences:
-To be: they form the Continuous (gerundio) and the Passive voice.
-To have: they form the Perfect tenses (tiempos de Perfecto en todos los tiempos)
-To do: they form the Present and Past Simple sentences in the negative and interrogative forms.

Los verbos to Be, to Have y to Do son esenciales en inglés además de su significado para describir, expresar la posesión o indicar la acción de hacer acompañan a otros verbos funcionando como auxiliares para indicar:
-To be: la voz pasiva y los tiempos de Gerundio (Continuous or Progressive forms).
-To have: tiempos de Perfecto en pasado, presente y futuro.
-To do: ayuda como auxiliar a hacer las frases interrogativas y negativas de Presente y Pasado Simple.
They are conjugated as main or auxiliary verbs according with the number (singular or plural) and time (past, present and future with some modal verbs such as "will, may, would") and we must always place the subject before them in the affirmative and negative sentences except in the interrogative sentences where they are placed at the beginning.
Usually there are some doubts in the translation of the conjugated verb "To Be" because English does not differentiate between "ser o estar" as Spanish does.
Example: Look at the bird at the cage! It is sad.
Ejemplo: Mira el pájaro en la jaula. Está triste/ Es triste(lamentable).

Se conjugan como verbos principales o auxiliares de acuerdo con el número y tiempo ( a veces necesitan de un modal como "will") y siempre debemos situar el sujeto, ya sea el pronombre personal o nombres delante de los verbos, excepto en las oraciones interrogativas en que el verbo irá al inicio de la frase porque ahí no hay signo de interrogación.

                                       PRESENT SIMPLE (Presente Simple)
To Be ( ser o estar )   
Affirmative                                Negative                    Interrogative
I am ( yo soy )                         I am not                       Am I (not)?
You are ( tu eres )                   You are not                  Are you (not)?
He is ( el es )                           He is not                     Is he?
She is ( ella es )                      She´s not                    Is she not?
It is ( eso es )                           It isn´t                         Is it not?

We are ( nosotros somos )       We are not                  Are we (not)?
you are ( ustedes son )             You aren´t                  Are you (not)?
they are ( ellos son )                 They are not              Are they (not)? 

To Have  (tener)               
Affirmative                                          Negative                   Interrogative
I  have / I`ve got ( yo tengo )          I have not (got)            Have I got?            
You have/ You´ve got ( tu tienes )   You have not (got)      Have you got?
He has/ He has got ( el tiene )         He has not (got)         Has he got?
She has/ She´s got ( ella tiene )       She hasn´t (got)        Has she got?
It has / It´s got ( eso tiene )               It hasn´t (got)            Has it got?

We have/ We´ve got ( nosotros tenemos)     We haven´t (got)      Have we got?
You have ( ustedes tienen )                           You have not got      Have you got?
They have/ They´ve got ( ellos tienen )         They haven´t            Have they got?

We can also use the verb DO accompanying the verb "have" to express the same 
meaning: I do not have/ It doesn´t have/ We don´t have/ Do you have?/Does it have?
Always without "got"  (Don´t get confused with AmE get/got/gotten "conseguir")
Podemos usar Do acompañando el verbo Have, siempre sin got! No confundir con inglés Amer.
Have got is used normally in BrE in its contracted form even in written language.
"Have got"se puede usar de forma contraída y puede haber interrogativas negativas.
Sólo podemos añadir "got" cuando se habla de posesión y relaciones.
En inglés americano "have"se omite en lengua coloquial: We have got a problem
There can be negations in questions too:    Haven´t you got...?

To Do ( hacer )
Affirmative                                     Negative                          Interrogative
I do ( yo hago )                           I do not do (don´t)...            Do I do....?
You do (tu haces )                     You do not do (don´t)            Do you do...?
He does ( el hace )                   He does not do (doesn´t)       Does he do...?
She does ( ella hace )              She doesn´t do...                    Does she do...?
It does ( eso hace )                  It does not do...                       Does it do...?
We do ( nosotros hacemos )      We do not do (don´t)            Do we do...?
You do ( ustedes hacen )           You don´t do..(don´t).           Do you do...?
They do ( ellos hacen)               They do not do...                  Do they do...?